New religious orders Some of the outcome, and much of the enforcement, of the Council of Trent was in the hands of newly established religious orders, above all the Society of Jesus, the , founded in 1534 by the Basque noble , and officially established by the papacy in 1540. In the 18th century, however, there arose a and a philosophical outlook that not only did not take Christianity for granted but in fact explicitly opposed it, compelling the church to redefine its position more radically than it had done since the conversion of in the 4th century. Both the continuance and correction of the same abuse cannot be due to the same movement. They had faced and fought the most redoubted ; they had preached to the poor and tended the sick in the darkest purlieus of the manufacturing cities. Later, many of their number returned to Catholicism, although there still remained numerous adherents of Calvinism in France. More perhaps than any of his immediate predecessors or successors, Pius X attended to the reform of the liturgy, especially the , and advocated early and frequent reception of Holy Communion.
But what was now different was that the individual had a choice regarding what it was he wished to conform to. He thus abstained from founding a separate community, and sought only to disseminate his ideas. Here again, the embattled situation of the Roman Catholic Church in the 17th and 18th centuries helps to account for an action that seems, in historical perspective, to have been excessively defensive and rigoristic. The of with the had given the an occasion for spreading. Why they did this is pretty clear -- they wanted to win back converts. The unflinching of Holum, Jon Arason, was beheaded, and the Reformation spread rapidly after 1551.
Since ancient times the church had been accustomed to ordering its relations with secular society through negotiations with kings and emperors, who would preferably be members of its own fellowship. Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ. E At first many displayed great apathy towards the Reformers, attaching to the new movement no importance; its chiefs were thus given a longer to spread their doctrines. The political power of the now stood at the highest point it reached during the Counter-Reformation. He was a kindly, sociable man, who had risen to fame as a lecturer on canon law, and his successes were due to his for , , and the machinery of government, rather than to anything magnetic or inspiring in his personal influence.
D Human emotions, to which the Reformers appealed in the most various ways, were another means of spreading the Reformation. The , who had previously had only thirteen colleges, now increased greatly both in numbers and influence, but amid many contradictions and acrimonious controversies with the University and the Parlement of. The number of great men among the , and the foundation of the , , and other orders, have already been mentioned as symptomatic of the improvement. In the last years of his papacy he also moved away from his more liberal encyclicals and showed his more conservative nature. For the Catholic Church on the other hand, human beings, through good works, had some agency in their salvation. By the middle of the 20th century, Latin American Catholicism remained strong but had endured periods of government hostility and increasing.
You may also be interested in the Hanover Historical Texts Collection, which holds the primary sources we publish online. The issue of slavery, one of the main causes of the war, was not a particularly problematic one for the church. The leaders of the Reformation in Germany sought to win over King Francis I, for political reasons an ally of the Protestant German princes; the king, however, remained true to the Church, and suppressed the reform movements throughout his land. However, the Court, the university, and the Parlement opposed the religious innovations, and the Lutheran community at Meaux was dissolved. The eventual result, the of 1900, took the lives of some 30,000 Catholics, both indigenous Chinese and missionaries; 86 of the were later canonized.
Aleander, , Morone, , Sadolet may be named as good examples of their class. Library of Congress, Washington, D. As soon as the Peace of was concluded, In 1559, the evils which had hitherto been working unperceived became evident. The faithful adherents of the Church were variously persecuted, and the civil authorities saw to it that the faith of the descendants of those who had strongly opposed the Reformation was gradually sapped. The Pietists in Germany had as their leader Philip Jacob Spener b.
Two lasting effects came out of the Counter-Reformation: the the Society of Jesus and the. In it apologist Mark Shea tells the story of his conversion from Evangelicalism to Catholicism, focusing precisely on the question of how we can know what we are to believe as Christians. A little later the same motive led Zwingli to put forth his erroneous teachings, thereby inaugurating the Reformation in German Switzerland see ;. Here public riots occurred during which images of and the were destroyed. The policies of the Counter Reformation -- education, preaching, church building, persecution, and censorship -- did succeed in bringing some people back to the Church. The first Catholic missionaries, however, began preaching in China only in the late 13th century, when the Franciscan was welcomed by the khan the Mongol ruler of China.
Both sides were cruel, but the barbarities of the were especially revolting to feelings. The most notable reformers were the Christian humanists, including Erasmus and , who advocated an evangelical piety and rejected many of the medieval superstitions that had crept into church teaching. The support of his sovereign, Frederick of Saxony, was of great importance. In a short time they had been heard of and seen everywhere. On the one hand we find great names among the of this period, such as St. Patrick Hamilton, Henry Forest, and Alexander Seton, the king's confessor, came forward as reformers.