Summary of results and discussion This section is organized according to the answers to the research question of this study, which was: How does cultural background impact upon strategy use? Wikipedia explains Madison's other main point being that the republican government proposed in the Constitution provides a check on both the power of factions and the tyranny of the majority. The Frenchman provided the additional machinery that was necessary to make a reality of the ideal of a government of laws and not of men, combined with the Lockeian concept of free government and the sacrosancity of property. But the Scot, very little interested as a partisan and very much so as a social scientist, treated the subject therefore in psychological, intellectual, and socioeconomic terms. This, at best, is but a precarious security; because a power independent of the society may as well espouse the unjust views of the major, as the rightful interests of the minor party, and may possibly be turned against both parties. First, government is frustrated by large territories because of logistical matters Ex: will rural constituency find a federal courthouse within a reasonable distance? There are but two methods of providing against this evil: the one, by creating a will in the community independent of the majority, that is, of the society itself; the other, by comprehending in the society so many separate descriptions of citizens, as will render an unjust combination of a majority of the whole very improbable, if not impracticable. They hoped to end the fear, which would lead to it being ratified. Further, by the time New York came to a vote, ten states had already ratified the Constitution and it had thus already passed—only nine states had to ratify it for the new government to be established among them; the ratification by Virginia, the tenth state, placed pressure on New York to ratify.
Anti- federalists think the states should have more power than the national government. Further safeguards against legislative tyranny may be necessary. That sounds pretty abstract and hard to do. The principle of creating divisions and subdivisions to keep each other in check is present in all endeavors, both public and private. Finally, the federalists won, and the new constitution was ratified on June 21, 1788. Thus, if no interstate proletariat could become organized on purely economic lines, the property of the rich would be safe even though the mass of the people held political power.
However, they were only irregularly published outside New York, and in other parts of the country they were often overshadowed by local writers. Just as we see today, citizens shared their points of view, many of them going to the press. It is the outstanding American contribution to the literature on constitutional democracy and federalism, and a classic of Western political thought. Therefore, the separation of powers described by the U. Alexander Hamilton, Authoritarianism, Democracy 1169 Words 4 Pages The Federalist Viewpoint One of the major aspects of politics is decision making.
On one side were the supporters of the proposed constitution Federalists and on the other the opponents Anti- Federalists. In their essays, a distinction between theory and practice is often drawn. The first few letters focused on the need for a new Constitution. It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to controul the abuses of government. He stresses the need for the.
Statistical analysis has been undertaken on several occasions in attempts to accurately identify the author of each individual essay. This list credited Hamilton with a full sixty-three of the essays three of those being jointly written with Madison , almost three-quarters of the whole, and was used as the basis for an 1810 printing that was the first to make specific attribution for the essays. Chase's patriotism was questioned when Hamilton revealed that Chase had taken advantage of knowledge gained in Congress to try to dominate the flour market. The main obstacle was how much power should the new government have. Anti- Federalists Participants in the Debate The debates over ratification of the Constitution represent the most important and intellectually sophisticated public debates in American history. These summary result mirror the Grainger 1997 study.
The European Enlightenment influenced the movement for individualism and political independence in the United States. As we observed earlier, he assumed that conflicts of interests are inherent in human nature, and he recognized that, as a consequence, people fall into various groups. This power may either not be imposed firmly or it may be abused to cripple the legislative. What are the two possible sources of oppression and what remedies does Madison propose to prevent them? Representative government is needed in large countries, not to protect the people from the tyranny of the few, but to guard against the rule of the mob. Summary Written by Donald Mellon.
This view of the subject must particularly recommend a proper federal system to all the sincere and considerate friends of republican government: since it shows, that in exact proportion as the territory of the union may be formed into more circumscribed confederacies, or states, oppressive combinations of a majority will be facilitated; the best security under the republican form, for the rights of every class of citizens, will be diminished; and consequently, the stability and independence of some member of the government, the only other security, must be proportionally increased. This is where the fight to ratify the constitution began. Furthermore, Madison emphasized that although the branches were meant to have checks and balances, the branches would only function to their fullest extent if they were independent of one another. The letters also explained the reasons for the different branches of government, especially the role of Congress and how this new government would prevent many of the problems they faced with Great Britain. What is really interesting in this essay is the detailed analysis of various institutions, which is known today as 'the theory of institutional design.
The eighty-five letters written were later compiled and published as the Federalist Letters. These inventions of prudence cannot be less requisite in the distribution of the supreme powers of the State. The opponents of the Constitution felt that the States would lose too much power and eventually lead to a more tyrannical government. In general, then, the Federalists discuses federalism as a means to achieve free government in peace and security. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Union was falling apart.