They are open to manipulation for political ends, and can be considered to have a political use. This essay will initially present the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative research and briefly quantitative research. To a plant manager at a distribution company, statistics are daily reports on inventory levels, absenteeism, labour efficiency, and production. The birth and death rates can also be studied. Not all secondary data give us a valid, true and detailed picture of what is being measured, not just official statistics. In this respect, they provide evidence of crimes that are known to the police and officially recorded by the police.
Surveys can cost millions of pounds and the sociologist would be saving that money by using official statistics. This is because, only the state can afford to conduct large scale surveys and have the power to make it mandatory for citizens to provide information like a birth. This can be explained as being the outcome of police decisions to take action on particular types of offences. However, other 'soft' statistics give a much less valid image. Market research helps you plan ahead.
This can decrease the representivity of the data. Accessing is cheap too as the Office of National Statistics has free access and they are available to anyone. Official statistics also provide data for the whole country. In order to understand why people commit crime, we need first to find out who commits crime and what sorts of crimes are committed. Importantly, self-report studies indicate that offending is not confined to the lower socio-economic classes. For an example Emile Durkheim, regarded as the founding father of sociology, used official suicide statistics for his suicide study. And to a college student, statistics are the grades made.
Outline and assess whether crime statistics give an accurate measure of actual crime Crime is seen as behaviour that breaks the law in a particular society. Many sociologists feel that as long as they are using the 'hard' statistics they can trust the official statistics. The second half of the essay looks two types of alternative crime data; victimization surveys and qualitative data. They are used in businesses to analyse the market i. Deviance refers to the behaviour that most people see as differing from acceptable social norms or standards of society — as abnormal or immoral. Sociologists view the presented data with differing degrees of cynicism depending on their stance. The Official Government Statistics are accumulated from police and count records; these include convictions, cautions and Crown prosecution service.
Statisticians apply statistical thinking and methods to a wide variety of scientific, social, and business endeavors in such areas as astronomy, biology, education, economics, engineering, genetics, marketing, medicine, psychology, public health, sports, among many. Later it will consider the use of the research paper within the clinical practice area; and discuss whether the results are beneficial to the nursing profession. However, with all research methods there are issues when using official statistics. Official statistics are used as parts of research as they compare patterns and trends over many years. It also gives an excellent picture of the extent and patterns of victimisation — something completely missing from official accounts. This post examines a ranges of official statistics collected by the United Kingdom government and evaluates their usefulness. Interpretivists argue the construction of statistics is a social process e.
Market research guides your communication with current and potential customers. Sociologists frequently use statistics to support or debunk a theory. However, if official statistics lack validity, and are not providing a true picture of crime, it may be that many of the sociological theories of crime require revision. For example, if someone is engaged in an activity that pushes the boundaries of legality and has a crime committed against themselves while so engaged, they are hardly likely to take the matter to the police. The notion of police discretion, Holdaway argues, is something which officers learn through the occupational culture. These data are almost invariably nationally representative, because they are obtained from complete or very large-scale national sample , and they usually seek to present definitive information conforming to international definitions and classifications or other well-established conventions.
A main plus is that official statistics are often compiled from data which has been gathered from a large sample size. He used them to find correlations and casual relations and identified four different types of suicide, egoistic suicide, anomic suicide, altruistic suicide and fatalistic suicide. Another problem with official statistics is conflict of interest. Also, these statistics help inform government policy. The picture of crime presented from official statistics suggests that the typical criminal is a young, working class male.
While the fact of a death may be easy to record, its cause may be more arguable; and other related factors are simply too complex to deal with in that way, however relevant. Phenomenologists believe that they can be studied in order to discover how they are produced. There is bias, but not just in the police force. What are the advantages of official statistics? It will then go on to critique a qualitative research article yet due to the word count only several factors of this will be critiqued and the article is by Wills' et al 2005. Two main sources of official statistics are the government and its departments, and surveys. Moreover, whilst the government may have vested interests in collecting statistics that may not benefit sociologists, they still have huge practical advantages that make them viable for sociological research.
The most famous of these surveys were the Islington Crime Surveys 1986 and 1990. For example the Home Office Crime Rates Statistics do not take into account the fact that not all crime is reported. . A decreasing proportion of data comes from these sorts of records. Victim Surveys A second way of estimating the extent and patterns of crime is that of victim surveys. For example, police departments collect data on how many people they arrest, what crimes they were, whether the cases were solved, etc. Official statistics can be produced as a by-product of the normal workings of a government department, but they can also result from research designed specifically to produce them.
Statistics can also sometimes be the only source available for a specific topic, such as unemployment figures. The Role of the Government What is considered a crime changes over time, as governments change the law in response to cultural changes and the influence of powerful groups. An example of a source of surveys that produce official statistics is The Office for National Statistics, which is a government agency and is responsible for compiling and analysing statistics. There are two forms of research methods and these are qualitative and quantitative; there are many advantages and disadvantages for using them to gather information; yet depending on the answer to be found this determines the research approach used. Hard statistics include birth, death and marriage rates. Another advantage is that statistics allow sociologists to make comparisons over time, as they are usually produced regularly, for example the Population Census, which is carried out every ten years.