Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. Controversial findings were found in the literature mostly due to the diversity of the experimental designs. These variables generally respond to changes in exercise volume, which is the product of exercise intensity i. Such studies may be used to describe some distinctive features of the population or may support some sort of causality between variables. Depending on the metabolic demands of each type of training, different adaptations will occur in the body such as muscular strength, power, hypertrophy muscle growth , and muscular endurance. The results were initially screened according to the title to exclude any obviously irrelevant articles.
Nevertheless, there is evidence of relevant co-contraction muscular intervention modes, possibly implying not only joint stabilization, but also eccentric actions of the antagonist muscles. Potential hits that met the inclusion criteria were searched thereafter. Cardiovascular Responses Greater volumes of training affect heart rate. Adhering to an endurance training program is perhaps the single most important factor that determines how much aerobic capacity O 2max improves. Training increases the number of mitochondria, antioxidants within mitochondria, and a variety of proteins that protect the muscle cells against stress. Probably, regularly using blood samples from top-level swimmers should be a must in monitoring the response to training loads. Because it is one of many adaptations, a high O 2max is not necessarily a good predictor of successful endurance performance.
Hematological responses to training in elite swimmers. Coaches still select on a daily basis cardiovascular measures to monitor and prescribe training intensity. Quality Assessment All relevant studies underwent a formal methodological assessment by two independent reviewers. The experimental approaches used muscle biopsy or blood sample assessment to collect enzymatic data. Assessing physiological adaptations to interval training A fundamental and longstanding focus of exercise physiology has been the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying training adaptations. In acute bouts of anaerobic exercise, there is an increase in cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure, and blood flow to the active muscles.
Training studies usually assess the volume or area of mitochondria via microscopy, the activity or protein content of mitochondrial enzymes e. The total duration of the interventions, the number of testing points, and the possible difference between training loads constitute some of the reasons for this discrepancy between results. During any physical activity that can be sustained for longer than a few minutes, this energy provision is supplied primarily by aerobic metabolism, i. Since swimming teams have only a small number of caliber swimmers to be assessed, most of the times researchers recruit convenience samples, which prevents to extrapolate the result for all population. The excluded studies were i studies not having at least two testing points with the same subjects, ii studies based on other swimming topics rather than physiology, iii studies using other chronological ages e. Importantly, the volume of training was identical for each leg. Training programs - including nutrition, hydration, and rest - should improve all of these responses.
These adaptations play an important role in the large increase in the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise that occurs in response to endurance exercise training. At least part of the beneficial effect of increasing exercise intensity on training induced adaptations in muscles can be attributed to the effect of intensity on muscle fiber recruitment Dudley et al. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. Cytokine production by monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells is hampered by long-term intensive training in elite swimmers. Results Our search identified 303 potential relevant papers of which 269 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Biomechanics of competitive front crawl swimming. Physiological adaptation to longer duration training types Aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness and muscular endurance are increasingly dependant on oxygen for energy as they tend to be longer duration with less rest.
Anaerobic training is often done to help facilitate maximal recruitment of motor units, especially fast-twitch units type 2 fibers. The above excerpt is from:. Endocrine Secretion Vigorous exercise has a short- and a long-term effect on the endocrine responses of individuals. Time course of changes in human skeletal muscle succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities and maximal oxygen uptake with physical activity and inactivity. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: i present two testing points; ii on swimming physiology; iii using adult elite swimmers; iv no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295, R264—R272. Cortisol, testosterone, and insulin action during intense swimming training in humans.
Hormonal responses of elite swimmers to overtraining. Hence, researchers are constantly willing to have a deeper insight into human performance in water. Regular exercise and the improved fitness that results help reduce the risk of many diseases and disorders. Connective Tissue Bones, ligaments, tendons, fascia, and cartilage are all examples of connective tissue in the human body. At rest, you breathe slowly but at a rate sufficient to expose the lungs to ample oxygen and flush out the carbon dioxide resulting from energy metabolism. However, anaerobic training as a whole will result in critical physiological adaptations to the nervous, muscular, connective tissue, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems which we will further discuss.
Future researchers need to spend more effort in understanding hormonal behaviour with respect to overtraining and burnout, critically analyzing the number of training sessions per week, the duration of those sessions, and the external load i. The reader is directed elsewhere for detailed reviews on the signalling pathways associated with mitochondrial biogenesis Scarpulla et al. These changes can result in enhanced muscular strength, power, and endurance. Stay tuned for next chapters installment, as we look at chapter 6 and the similar adaptations that occur due to aerobic training programs. In effect, when a fiber is recruited it becomes more effectively 'bathed' in the flow of blood delivered to the muscle.