The President on the report of the Governor of the concerned State or on his own enquiry can take over the administration of State till the situation is normal. The following are the defining features of federalism. Conversely, federal systems tend to take longer to make decisions, to adopt or reject new laws, and to implement political and social changes; 2 Participation of Unitary vs. In a time of emergency, it makes timely decisions as compared to the federal government system. In general, private entrepreneurship tends to be more challenging in unitary states.
This shows Central supremacy even in the legislative sphere. Cabinet, ministries and agencies The organizational structure of a department of the Government of India. The judiciary systematically contains an apex , 24 , and several , all inferior to the supreme court. States are not subordinates of the center. Qn 3: Is regionalism a threat to unity and integrity of India? All the autonomous areas are an integral part of the People's Republic of China. Flexibility of the Constitution and Administration: The central government alone has the power to amend the constitution and in this sense the constitution of a unitary state is always flexible. Articles 200 and 201 empower the Governor of a state—a Central nominee removable by the Union Government—to reserve for the consideration of the President any bill passed by the state legislature.
Natur of Indian union and the position of state High standard and prompt justice delivery set up. Britain, France, Japan, Italy, China and several other countries are unitary states. Regional autonomy China has a unitary state structure and a regional national autonomy system. Excluding the provisions of the constitution outside these lists per , the power to legislate on such subjects, rests with the exclusively per Article 248. The can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time, particularly in cases involving punishment of death. Even though regionalism is attributive of uneven economic development and underrepresentation of some regions in the governance of the country, it is flamed by narrow-minded and anti-national forces to gain their nefarious goals.
Any arbitrary decision of the Centre without the consent of the State and a negotiated settlement in this regard will effectively convert states into municipalities, and India into a unitary state. In India, the North- Eastern states are having similar feelings and creating problems for the federation. The Union government in 1952 introduced the that damaged many Indian states, including West Bengal, Bihar including present-day Jharkhand , Madhya Pradesh including present-day Chhattisgarh and Orissa. Inequality of Representation in the Council of States: In the Council of States, States have not been given equal representations. It has been seen that in times of emergency, the sun of federalism is eclipsed. What was a significant effect of Shay's Rebellion? However, when one becomes aware of the allocations of the Central plan fund released by the Planning Commission on an annual basis, it appears that there is no such obtrusive discrimination.
Parliament should always be functional. The Parliament has the power to make laws even on the subjects of the State List in the national interest Article 249 , under Article 252 and in the implementation of international treaties. Yet, federal systems allow for a broader popular engagement. Through him, the Centre exercises control over the states. Each minister must be a member of one of the houses of the parliament. Executive The of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. In the nationally method, electric energy is shared amongst their country and also nationally governments.
A provincial emergency is declared by the Governor-General and the Governor alone can make laws for the province during this period. However, there might make definite forces and authorities that maintain completely with all the nationally authorities such as insurance policy insurance coverages on funding, entire world diplomacy, etc. Their intention has found meaning. Language Conflicts Diversity in languages in India sometimes causes a blow the federal spirit of the Constitution. There can be two level of federal government in a country either it is performing through common institutions or through powers as prescribed by a constitution of the state. The decision-making power rest with the central government that are shared by the government with the lower level government when needed. Which of The following provides the definition of a nation? While through the duration of case of unitary government, actually finest the courtroom docket cannot offer conclusion or remarks regarding the monthly bill or legislation given by parliament.
Wheare accepts the existence of certain provisions in the American constitution, such as dependence of Senate on States, that are contrary to federal character. The New Deal was widely condemned for decreasing the power of the United States Supreme Court. The supreme court is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the , the highest constitutional court, with the power of. Welfare of Scheduled Tribes and Backward Classes under President: The welfare of the scheduled tribes and backward classes has been placed under the special care of the Indian President who is empowered to appoint a commission to investigate their conditions. All the above characteristics are present in the Indian Constitution. The Fathers of the Constitution were conscious of the realities confronting the dismembered India. Through federalism, the State pursues the goal of common welfare in the midst of wide diversity in socio-cultural, economic spheres.
As per article 88 of the constitution, every minister shall have the right to speak in, and to take part in the proceedings of, either house, any joint sitting of the houses, and any committee of parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall not be entitled to a vote in the house where he is not a member. Planning Commission: The Planning Commission which functions like super cabinet has proved to be a band master which calls the tune of the economic policy of the country. It is a compromise between two conflicting considerations such as autonomy enjoyed by states within the constitutionally prescribed limit State List and the need for a strong centre in view of the unity and integrity of the country Union List. Qn 2: Strong Centre is a robust constitutional mechanism against divisive forces in India. The preceding years of its working in actual practice has demonstrated the reality and vitality of the federal system. There is called for a more widespread perception of evenhandedness and fairness.
Hence, they have to depend upon the financial assistance of the Centre in the form of a share of the proceeds of some of the Union taxes and grants-in-aid. There is only Indian Citizenship and no separate state citizenship. India does not have a constitution. Conversely, in a federal system, regions and provinces enjoy a higher degree of autonomy. This legal supremacy of the constitution is maintained by the Supreme Court which is vested with the power to interpret the constitution and declare any act of the union or state governments which violates the provisions of the constitution as null and void.