All phases of each cropping system are present every year In part A of this section, we provide a summary of results from the preceding case study along with other modem no-till cropping studies from the central and southern Great Plains region. In a good discussion of this subject, Pacey 1985 Chapter 6 points out that apart from the technical differences, methods must also be compatible with local life styles, social systems, and patterns of administration. This spoils the health of soil and causes stunting of the crop as well. Vast tracts of fertile land are rendered useless on account of industrialisation and development. Fairbourn also showed that infiltration could be increased by burying crop residues in a narrow trench in the cultivated area; he called this vertical mulching but the extra complication of trenching and filling make this practice unlikely to be adopted on a wide scale Figure 5. Yes, there is hydroponic growing and yes, it can do many things, but it is certainly no replacement for the dirt that farmers world-wide coat their hands in for a living and our survival. It had evaporation rates of about 2.
They are just doing the best they can for themselves and their families. In the area where plantations have not been made the soil is actively eroding. This process is termed as contour farming. Sandy soils have quicker infiltration and lower storage which tends to go with the diversion schemes of Section 5. The possibility of increasing run-off through surface applications of bentonite or sediment from tanks was possible but unlikely to be economic. Three safety back-ups are required to minimize the risk of damage by erosion: · the furrows should be on a gentle grade to assist run-off if the ties fail; · the ties should be lower in height than the ridges so that the ties fail along the furrows before the ridges fail down the slope; · there should be a back-up system of conventional graded channel terraces to prevent damage if the ridges do overtop or fail.
This also means that there is heavy deposition of sediment parti- cularly at the beginning of the canal, and regular clearing is essential. If the answer is negative, it is high time we adopt the method of watering soil as a measure of conserving soil. An aid to designing what is best in the long-term by modelling has been developed Morin et al. One possible reason for the low adoption of the system is the temperature effect reported by Jones. This requires planning and knowledge. This task includes enhancing infiltrability and surface storage, improving soil structure, protecting the topsoil by a cover crop or a mulch of organic residues e. When used in conjunction with growing vegetation, it is even more effective.
The mica-laden melt waters from the glaciers of the Himalaya are used to build up the physical volume of soil by spreading the water onto gravel beds. A variation in the theme, which is suitable for hand work, has been tried on a limited scale in Burkina Faso and is called tied-mounding shown in Plate 5. In this period, the high residue levels coupled with dry soil profiles are ideal for enhanced infiltration, even though evaporation potential is high. Stream bank protection: Banks of channels or rivers usually cave in during floods. Multiple cropping fixes nitrogen in the soil, enabling soil to retain its fertility. Another successful example, from Ethiopia, is shown in Plate 5.
No-till farming: When soil is prepared for farming by ploughing it, the process is known as tiling. Though this practice is useful yet it is not possible in the countries like India where exists severe problem of cereals because of thick human population. However, the importance of soil conservation is relatively less talked about as compared to conservation of water and other natural resources. The traditional solution is small open drains on a very steep gradient to intercept any surface flow. An additional concern shared by many farmers is the possibility of negatively impacting the drainage rights of their neighbors.
The practice of cultivating to leave ridges and furrows on the contour without any additional land shaping was discussed in Section 4. It is the method of ploughing across the contour lines of a slope. Without water the planet would probably not exist. Benefits of soil conservation include improving air quality, minimizing soil erosion and improving soil quality. Various crops ripen at different times of the year and are harvested at intervals. Use of paving stones is a better alternative to concrete slab as it allows the water to pass into the soil.
By pan breaking, drainage and percolation of rain water is improved and soil is saved from residual run-off and erosion. Planting trees and terracing are two of the best ways to prevent soil erosion. Selection of crops for rotation should be made taking into consideration the climate, economic condition soil types, soil texture, slopes, nature of erosion, etc. Ponds: Construction of small ponds at suitable places to store water is a good practice. Numbers above bars represent percentage of yearly precipitation occurring in that month.
The soil excavated from the trenches is deposited along the lower edge in the form of bund. Afforestation is the best means to check the soil erosion. Salt breaks down the soil structure, causing infertility and reduced growth. As the width of planters and drills continues to increase, so does the need for wider terraces, but this is restricted by the slope and the depth of soil. Contour bunds are also used in Ethiopia Plate 5. The Ken McCauley farm was now without livestock for the first time.